The national dog of Mexico, the Xoloitzcuintli or Xolo, also known as the Mexican Hairless Dog, is an ancient hairless dog found in toy, miniature, and standard sizes. The breed also comes in a coated variety. The name comes from combining the god Xolotl and itzcuīntli meaning dog in Nahuatl.
Ceramic representations of the Xoloitzcuintli, known as Colima Dogs, date back to 900 BC. The indigenous peoples believed the Xolo would safeguard their home from evil spirits and they were often buried with their owners to guide to the soul on its journey to the underworld. Found in burial sites of both the Maya and the Toltec, these dogs were considered a great delicacy and were consumed for sacrificial ceremonies including marriages and funerals.
The pre-European Xoloitzcuintli was considered a sacred dog by the Aztecs, Toltecs and Maya,. According to Aztec mythology, the god Xolotl made the Xoloitzcuintli from a sliver of the Bone of Life from which all mankind was made. Unlike the Toltecs and Maya, the Aztecs did not consume the Xoloitzcuintli.
The breed was officially recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) in 1956.
Toy: 5–15 lbs (2.3-6.8 kg)
Miniature: 15–30 lbs (6.8-13.6 kg)
Standard: 25–40 lbs (11.3-18.1 kg)
Toy: 9–14 in (22.0-35.6 cm)
Miniature: 15–20 in (38.1-50.8 cm)
Standard: 20–30 in (50.8-76.2 cm)
Coat: Hairless or short, flat, dense coat.
Hairless: Black or Bluish-gray.
Coated: Black, Grey, Bronze, Yellowish-blonde, Blue, or Red.
Litter size: 5 puppies. Four hairless and one coated.
Life span: 12-15 years
Temperament: Cheerful, Intelligent, Alert, Companionable, Protective, Calm.
Health: Healthy and hardy breed. No major health issues.
• Similar in appearance to the Pharaoh Hound.
• Appear in paintings by Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo.
• Has been mistaken for the mythical Chupacabras of Mexico
• Warmth of their bodies traditionally used to treat aches and pains, rheumatism, asthma, toothaches and insomnia.
AKC: Non-sporting (FSS)
CKC: Toys/Non Sporting
KC (UK): Utility
UKC: Sighthound & Pariah
FCI: Group 5 Spitz and Primitive dogs, Section 6 Primitive type #234:
Miniature 234a / Intermediate 234b / Standard 234c